"Oxygen is the most important element for life.  All aquatic life forms require oxygen. From the fish down to the bacteria any body of water has what is called an “oxygen demand”. Of all the essential elements in water, oxygen is also in the shortest supply. The air we breathe is 21% oxygen. Water can only hold about 8 parts per million (mg/liter) or 0.0008% at 20 degrees Celsius. Oxygen does not like water. It does not take long for oxygen to be depleted; it is our job to make sure it is replenished continuously. Our fish depend on us.

Ponds and lakes gain oxygen in two ways. 1) Photosynthesis by algae and plants. 2) Atmospheric oxygen is transferred into water at the surface of pond. Photosynthesis may produce sufficient oxygen for very low fish loads but is inconsistent due to the fact that at night algae and plants remove oxygen through the process of respiration. Most of the ponds and lakes we deal with have higher than natural fish loads and require additional oxygen to maintain a clean and healthy environment. To properly aerate ponds and lakes we must increase the available surface area and improve circulation to increase the transfer of atmospheric oxygen into the water. Surface turbulence increases the available surface area in contact with the atmosphere and allows increased transfer of oxygen. Increased circulation evenly distributes the oxygen to all zones within the pond. All techniques we employ to aerate a body of water focus on increasing the surface turbulence and thus increasing the surface area for oxygen transfer. Most of these techniques also improve circulation." (data supplied by Hakko Air Pumps)